Note A.---Loch Awe.

  ``Loch Awe, upon the banks of which the scene of action
took place, is thirty-four miles in length.  The north side is
bounded by wide muirs and inconsiderable hills, which occupy
an extent of country from twelve to twenty miles in breadth,
and the whole of this space is enclosed as by circumvallation.  
Upon the north it is barred by Loch Eitive, on the south by
Loch Awe, and on the east by the dreadful pass of Brandir,
through which an arm of the latter lake opens, at about four
miles from its eastern extremity, and discharges the river
Awe into the former.  The pass is about three miles in length;
its east side is bounded by the almost inaccessible steeps which
form the base of the vast and rugged mountain of Cruachan.  
The crags rise in some places almost perpendicularly from
the water, and for their chief extent show no space nor level
at their feet, but a rough and narrow edge of stony beach.  
Upon the whole of these cliffs grows a thick and interwoven
wood of all kinds of trees, both timber, dwarf, and coppice;
no track existed through the wilderness, but a winding path,
which sometimes crept along the precipitous height, and sometimes
descended in a straight pass along the margin of the
water.  Near the extremity of the defile, a narrow level opened
between the water and the crag; but a great part of this,
as well as of the preceding steeps, was formerly enveloped in
a thicket, which showed little facility to the feet of any but
the martins and wild cats.  Along the west side of the pass lies
a wall of sheer and barren crags.  From behind they rise in
rough, uneven, and heathy declivities, out of the wide muir
before mentioned, between Loch Eitive and Loch Awe; but in
front they terminate abruptly in the most frightful precipices,
which form the whole side of the pass, and descend at one fan
into the water which fills its trough.  At the north end of the
barrier, and at the termination of the pass, lies that part of the
cliff which is called Craiganuni; at its foot the arm of the
lake gradually contracts its water to a very narrow space, and
at length terminates at two rooks (called the Rocks of Brandir),
which form a strait channel, something resembling the lock
of a canal.  From this outlet there is a continual descent towards
Loch Eitive, and from hence the river Awe pours out
its current in a furious stream, foaming over a bed broken with
holes, and cumbered with masses of granite and whinstone.

  ``If ever there was a bridge near Craiganuni in ancient times,
it must have been at the Rocks of Brandir.  From the days of
Wallace to those of General Wade, there were never passages of
this kind but in places of great necessity, too narrow for a
boat, and too wide for a leap; even then they were but an unsafe
footway formed of the trunks of trees placed transversely from
rock to rock, unstripped of their bark, and destitute of either
plank or rail.  For such a structure, there is no place in the
neighbourhood of Craiganuni, but at the rocks above mentioned.
In the lake and on the river, the water is far too wide;
but at the strait, the space is not greater than might be crossed
by a tall mountain pine, and the rocks on either side are formed
by nature like a pier.  That this point was always a place of
passage, is rendered probable by its facility, and the use of
recent times.  It is not long since it was the common gate of
the country on either side the river and the pass: the mode of
crossing is yet in the memory of people living, and was performed
by a little currach moored on either side the water,
and a stout cable fixed across the stream from bank to bank,
by which the passengers drew themselves across in the manner
still practised in places of the same nature.  It is no argument
against the existence of a bridge in former times, that
the above method only existed in ours, rather than a passage
of that kind, which would seem the more improved expedient.  
The contradiction is sufficiently accounted for by the decay of
timber in the neighbourhood.  Of old, both oaks and firs of
an immense size abounded within a very inconsiderable distance;
but it is now many years since the destruction of the
forests of Glen Eitive and Glen Urcha has deprived the country
of all the trees of sufficient size to cross the strait of Brandir;
and it is probable, that the currach was not introduced
till the want of timber had disenabled the inhabitants of
the country from maintaining a bridge.  It only further remains
to be noticed, that at some distance below the Rocks of
Brandir, there was formerly a ford, which was used for cattle
in the memory of people living; from the narrowness of the
passage, the force of the stream, and the broken bed of the
river, it was, however, a dangerous pass, and could only be
attempted with safety at leisure and by experience.''---_Notes to
the Bridal of Caolchairn_.

    Note B.---Battle betwixt the Armies of the Bruce
               and Macdougal of Lorn.

``But the King, whose dear-bought experience in war had
taught him extreme caution, remained in the Braes of Balquhidder
till he had acquired by his spies and outskirries a perfect
knowledge of the disposition of the army of Lorn, and the
intention of its leader.  He then divided his force into two columns,
intrusting the command of the first, in which he placed
his archers and lightest armed troops, to Sir James Douglas,
whilst he himself took the leading of the other, which consisted
principally of his knights and barons.  On approaching
the defile, Bruce dispatched Sir James Douglas by a pathway
which the enemy had neglected to occupy, with directions to
advance silently, and gain the heights above and in front of
the hilly ground where the men of Lorn were concealed; and,
having ascertained that this movement had been executed with
success, he put himself at the head of his own division, and
fearlessly led his men into the defile.  Here, prepared as he
was for what was to take place, it was difficult to prevent a
temporary panic, when the yell which, to this day, invariably
precedes the assault of the mountaineer, burst from the rugged
bosom of Ben Cruachan; and the woods which, the moment
before, had waved in silence and solitude, gave forth
their birth of steel-clad warriors, and, in an instant, became
instinct with the dreadful vitality of war.  But although appalled
and checked for a brief space by the suddenness of the
assault, and the masses of rock which the enemy rolled down
from the precipices, Bruce, at the head of his division, pressed
up the side of the mountain.  Whilst this party assaulted the
men of Lorn with the utmost fury, Sir James Douglas and
his party shouted suddenly upon the heights in their front,
showering down their arrows upon them; and, when these
missiles were exhausted, attacking them with their swords
and battle-axes.  The consequence of such an attack, both in
front and rear, was the total discomfiture of the army of Lorn;
and the circumstances to which this chief had so confidently
looked forward, as rendering the destruction of Bruce almost
inevitable, were now turned with fatal effect against himself.  
His great superiority of numbers cumbered and impeded his
movements.  Thrust, by the double assault, and by the peculiar
nature of the ground, into such narrow room as the pass
afforded, and driven to fury by finding themselves cut to
pieces in detail, without power of resistance, the men of Lorn
fled towards Loch Eitive, where a bridge thrown over the
Awe, and supported upon two immense rocks, known by the
name of the Rocks of Brandir, formed the solitary communication
between the side of the river where the battle took place,
and the country of Lorn.  Their object was to gain the bridge,
which was composed entirely of wood, and having availed
themselves of it in their retreat, to destroy it, and thus throw
the impassable torrent of the Awe between them and their
enemies.  But their intention was instantly detected by Douglas,
who, rushing down from the high grounds at the head
of his archers and light-armed foresters, attacked the body of
the mountaineers, which had occupied the bridge, and drove
them from it with great slaughter, so that Bruce and his division,
on coming up, passed it without molestation; and, this
last resource being taken from them, the army of Lorn were,
in a few hours, literally cut to pieces, whilst their chief, who
occupied Loch Eitive with his fleet, saw, from his ships, the
discomfiture of his men, and found it impossible to give them
the least assistance.''---Tytler's _Life of Bruce_.


      Note C.--Massacre of Glencoe.

The following succinct account of this too celebrated event,
may be sufficient for this place:---

``In the beginning of the year 1692, an action of unexampled
barbarity disgraced the government of King William Ill. in
Scotland.  In the August preceding, a proclamation had been
issued, offering an indemnity to such insurgents as should
take the oaths to the King and Queen, on or before the last
day of December; and the chiefs of such tribes, as had been
in arms for James, soon after took advantage of the proclamation.
But Macdonald of Glencoe was prevented by accident,
rather than design, from tendering his submission within the
limited time.  In the end of December he went to Colonel
Hill, who commanded the garrison in Fort William, to take
the oaths of allegiance to the government ; and the latter having
furnished him with a letter to Sir Colin Campbell, Sheriff
of the county of Argyll, directed him to repair immediately
to Inverary, to make his submission in a legal manner before
that magistrate.  But the way to Inverary lay through almost
impassable mountains, the season was extremely rigorous, and
the whole country was covered with a deep snow.  So eager,
however, was Macdonald to take the oaths before the limited
time should expire, that, though the road lay within half a
mile of his own house, he stopped not to visit his family, and,
after various obstructions, arrived at Inverary.  The time
had elapsed, and the sheriff hesitated to receive his submission ;
but Macdonald prevailed by his importunities, and  even tears,
in inducing that functionary to administer to him  the oath of
allegiance, and to certify the cause of his delay.  At this time
Sir John Dalrymple, afterwards Earl of Stair, being in attendance
upon William as Secretary of State for Scotland,
took advantage of Macdonald's neglecting to take the oath
within the time prescribed, and procured from the King a
warrant of military execution against that chief and his whole
clan.  This was done at the instigation of the Earl of Breadalbane,
whose lands the Glencoe men had plundered, and
whose treachery to government in negotiating with the Highland
clans, Macdonald himself had exposed.  The King was
accordingly persuaded that Glencoe was the main obstacle to
the pacification of the Highlands ; and the fact of the unfortunate
chief's submission having been concealed, the sanguinary
orders for proceeding to military execution against his
clan were in consequence obtained.  The warrant was both
signed and countersigned by the King's own hand, and the
Secretary urged the officers who commanded in the Highlands
to execute their orders with the utmost rigour.  Campbell
of Glenlyon, a captain in Argyll's regiment, and two
subalterns, were ordered to repair to Glencoe on the first
of February with a hundred and twenty men.  Campbell
being uncle to young Macdonald's wife, was received by the
father with all manner of friendship and hospitality.  The
men were lodged at free quarters in the houses of his tenants,
and received the kindest entertainment. Till the 13th of the
month the troops lived in the utmost harmony and familiarity
with the people ; and on the very night of the massacre,
the officers passed the evening at cards in Macdonald's house.  
In the night Lieutenant Lindsay, with a party of soldiers,
called in a friendly manner at his door, and was instantly admitted.
Macdonald, while in the act of rising to receive his
guest, was shot dead through the back with two bullets.  His
wife had already dressed ; but she was stripped naked by the
soldiers, who tore the rings off her fingers with their teeth.  
The slaughter now became general, and neither age nor infirmity
was spared.  Some women, in defending their children,
were killed; boys, imploring mercy, were shot dead by
officers on whose knees they hung.  In one place nine persons,
as they sat enjoying themselves at table, were butchered by
the soldiers.  In Inverriggon, Campbell's own quarters, nine
men were first bound by the soldiers, and then shot at intervals,
one by one.  Nearly forty persons were massacred by the
troops; and several who fled to the mountains perished by
famine and the inclemency of the season.  Those  who escaped
owed their lives to a tempestuous night.  Lieutenant-Colonel
Hamilton, who had received the charge of the execution from
Dalrymple, was on his march with four hundred men, to
guard all the passes from the valley of Glencoe; but he was
obliged to stop by the severity of the weather, which proved
the safety of the unfortunate clan.  Next day he entered the
valley, laid the houses in ashes, and carried away the cattle
and spoil, which were divided among the officers and soldiers.''
---_Article_ ``Britain;'' _Encyc. Britannica---New edition_.

             NOTE TO CHAPTER V.

  Note D.---Fidelity of the Highlanders.

Of the strong, undeviating attachment of the Highlanders
to the person, and their deference to the will or commands
of their chiefs and superiors---their rigid adherence to duty
and principle---and their chivalrous acts of self-devotion to
these in the face of danger and death, there are many instances
recorded in General Stewart of Garth's interesting Sketches
of the Highlanders and Highland Regiments, which might
not inaptly supply parallels to the deeds of the Romans themselves,
at the era when Rome was in her glory.  The following
instances of such are worthy of being here quoted:---

  ``In the year 1795, a serious disturbance broke out in Glasgow,
among the Breadalbane Fencibles.  Several men having
been confined and threatened with corporal punishment, considerable
discontent and irritation were excited among their
comrades, which increased to such violence, that, when some
men were confined in the guard-house, a great proportion of
the regiment rushed out and forcibly released the prisoners.  
This violation of military discipline was not to be passed
over, and accordingly measures were immediately taken to
secure the ringleaders.  But so many were equally concerned,
that it was difficult, if not impossible, to fix the crime on
any, as being more prominently guilty.  And here was shown
a trait of character worthy of a better cause, and which originated
from a feeling alive to the disgrace of a degrading
punishment.  The soldiers being made sensible of the nature
of their misconduct, and the consequent necessity of public
example, _several men voluntarily offered themselves to stand
trial_, and suffer the sentence of the law as an atonement for
the whole.  These men were accordingly marched to Edinburgh
Castle, tried, and four condemned to be shot.  Three
of them were afterwards reprieved, and the fourth, Alexander
Sutherland, was shot on Musselburgh Sands.

  ``The following demi-official account of this unfortunate
misunderstanding was published at the time:---

  `` `During the afternoon of Monday, when a private of the
light company of the Breadalbane Fencibles, who had been
confined for a military offence, was released by that company,
and some other companies, who had assembled in a tumultuous
manner before the guard-house, no person whatever was
hurt, and no violence offered; and however unjustifiable the
proceedings, it originated not from any disrespect or ill-will
to their officers, but from a mistaken point of honour, in a
particular set of men in the battalion, who thought themselves
disgraced by the impending punishment of one of their
number.  The men have, in every respect, since that period
conducted themselves with the greatest regularity, and strict
subordination.  The whole of the battalion seemed extremely
sensible of the improper conduct of such as were concerned,
whatever regret they might feel for the fate of the few individuals
who had so readily given themselves up as prisoners,
to be tried for their own and others' misconduct.'

  ``On the march to Edinburgh, a circumstance occurred,
the more worthy of notice, as it shows a strong principle of
honour and fidelity to his word and to his officer in a common
Highland soldier.  One of the men stated to the officer commanding
the party, that he knew what his fate would be,
but that he had left business of the utmost importance to a
friend in Glasgow, which he wished to transact before his
death ; that, as to himself, he was fully prepared to meet his
fate; but with regard to his friend, he could not die in peace
unless the business was settled, and that, if the officer would
suffer him to return to Glasgow, a few hours there would be
sufficient, and he would join him before he reached Edinburgh,
and march as a prisoner with the party.  The soldier
added, `You have known me since I was a child; you know
my country and kindred, and you may believe I shall never
bring you to any blame by a breach of the promise I now
make, to be with you in full time to be delivered up in the
Castle.' This was a startling proposal to the officer, who was
a judicious, humane man, and knew perfectly his risk and
responsibility in yielding to such an extraordinary application.
However, his confidence was such, that he complied with the
request of the prisoner, who returned to Glasgow at night,
settled his business, and left the town before daylight to redeem
his pledge.  He took a long circuit to avoid being seen,
apprehended as a deserter, and sent back to Glasgow, as probably
his account of his officer's indulgence would not have
been credited. In consequence of this caution, and the lengthened
march through woods and over hills by an unfrequented
route, there was no appearance of him at the hour appointed.
The perplexity of the officer when he reached the neighbourhood
of Edinburgh may be easily imagined.  He moved
forward slowly indeed, but no soldier appeared; and unable
to delay any longer, he marched up to the Castle, and as he
was delivering over the prisoners, but before any report was
given in, Macmartin, the absent soldier, rushed in among his
fellow prisoners, all pale with anxiety and fatigue, and breathless
with apprehension of the consequences in which his delay
might have involved his benefactor.

  ``In whatever light the conduct of the officer (my respectable
friend, Major Colin Campbell) may be considered, either by
military men or others, in this memorable exemplification of
the characteristic principle of his countrymen, fidelity to their
word, it cannot but be wished that the soldier's magnanimous
self-devotion had been taken as an atonement for his own misconduct
and that of the whole, who also had made a high sacrifice,
in the voluntary offer of their lives for the conduct of
their brother soldiers.  Are these a people to be treated as
malefactors, without regard to their feelings and principles?
and might not a discipline, somewhat different from the
usual mode, be, with advantage, applied to them?''-Vol. II.
p. 413-15. 3d Edit.

  ``A soldier of this regiment, (The Argyllshire Highlanders,)
deserted, and emigrated to America, where he settled.  Several
years after his desertion, a letter was received from him,
with a sum of money, for the purpose of procuring one or two
men to supply his place in the regiment, as the only recompense
he could make for `breaking his oath to his God and
his allegiance to his King, which preyed on his conscience in
such a manner, that he had no rest night nor day.'

  ``This man had had good principles early instilled into his
mind, and the disgrace which be had been originally taught
to believe would attach to a breach of faith now operated with
full effect.  The soldier who deserted from the 42d Regiment
at Gibraltar, in 1797, exhibited the same remorse of conscience
after he had violated his allegiance.  In countries where such
principles prevail, and regulate the character of a people, the
mass of the population may, on occasions of trial, be reckoned
on as sound and trustworthy.''-Vol. II.  P. 218. 3d Edit.

  ``The late James Menzies of Culdares, having engaged in the
rebellion of 1715, and been taken at Preston, in Lancashire,
was carried to London, where he was tried and condemned,
but afterwards reprieved.  Grateful for this clemency, he remained
at home in 1745, but, retaining a predilection for the
old cause, he sent a handsome charger as a present to Prince
Charles, when advancing through England.  The servant who
led and delivered the horse was taken prisoner, and carried to
Carlisle, where he was tried and condemned.  To extort a discovery
of the person who sent the horse, threats of immediate
execution in case of refusal, and offers of pardon on his giving
information, were held out ineffectually to the faithful messenger.
He knew, he said, what the consequence of a disclosure
would be to his master, and his own life was nothing in
the comparison; when brought out for execution, he was again
pressed to inform on his master.  He asked if they were serious
in supposing him such a villain.  If he did what they desired,
and forgot his master and his trust, he could not return
to his native country, for Glenlyon would be no home or
country for him, as he would be despised and hunted out of
the Glen.  Accordingly he kept steady to his trust, and was
executed.  This trusty servant's name was John Macnaughton,
from Glenlyon, in Perthshire; he deserves to be mentioned,
both on account of his incorruptible fidelity, and of his testimony
to the honourable principles of the people, and to their
detestation of a breach of trust to a kind and honourable master,
however great might be the risk, or however fatal the consequences,
to the individual himself.''-Vol. 1. pp. 52, 53.
3d Edit.