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Articles and Chapters on Sir Walter Scott Published in 2004

An Annotated Bibliography

Baysal, Alev. 'Barnaby Rudge as a Historical Novel and Sir Walter Scott's Influence', Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi/Journal of the Faculty of Letters, 21.2 (2004), 195-208.

Detects the influence of Scott (particularly The Heart of Mid-Lothian) both in the research Dickens conducted on the Gordon Riots, and on his presentation of the Riots in Barnaby Rudge. Dickens’s admiration for and imitation of Scott’s techniques also lead him to relate the historical events to contemporary ones, revealing suggestive parallels between the Gordon Riots and the Chartist campaign.

Boddy, Kasia. 'Scottish Fighting Men: Big and Wee', in Scotland in Theory: Reflections on Culture and Literature, ed. Eleanor Bell and Gavin Miller (Amsterdam; New York: Rodopi, 2004), pp. 183-96.

A survey of Scottish boxing literature including (pp. 184-87) a discussion of Scott's 'The Two Drovers' which contrasts Harry Wakefield's belief that boxing is honourably manly and quintessentially English with the Highlander Robin Oig's view of the sport as unseemly and animalistic.

Bratcher, James T. 'A Ranging Analogue of Scott's the "Eve of St John"', Notes and Queries, 51.2 (2004), 143-44.

Suggests a parallel between Sir Walter Scott's poem 'The Eve of St. John' and a legend running in the Beresford family of Curraghmore, Waterford, Ireland. In both a woman is visited by the ghost of her adulterous lover who leaves a scar upon her wrist.

Breeze, Andrew. 'A Gaelic Etymology for "Camstairy" in Guy Mannering', Scottish Language, 23 (2004), 116-17.

Suggests that the Scots adjective 'camstairy' meaning 'obstinate and unruly', used by Scott in Guy Mannering and attested in other 18th- and 19th-century sources, derives from the Scottish Gaelic equivalent of the Modern Irish 'camstarran' ('perverseness'). As the word is used by Scott's character Dandie Dinmont in Roxburghshire, the source of borrowing is judged likely to be Galloway, where Gaelic was still being spoken at least as late as the 17th century.

Brown, Iain Gordon. ‘The Hand of the Master?: Scott Fakes and Facsimiles as Souvenirs or Scams’, Folio, 9 (2004), 6-9 <> [accessed 22 February 2011]

Notes that collectors are not only deceived by fake Scott letters (often produced by Alexander Howland ‘Antique’ Smith) but by facsimiles produced as memorabilia or marketing ploys. Examines, in particular, the lithographed facsimile of Scott's dedicatory letter to George IV made for the Abbotsford Edition of the Waverley Novels. This proves to be a skillful pseudo-facsimile that considerably sharpens Scott's somewhat rambling original.

Buckley-Fletcher, Carolyn. 'Sir Walter Scott and the Beginnings of Ethnology', in Nonfictional Romantic Prose: Expanding Borders, ed. Steven P. Sondrup, Virgil Nemoianu, and Gerald Gillespie (Amsterdam: Benjamins, 2004), pp. 107-13.

Having first responded to cultural crisis as a historian, antiquarian, and anthropologist, Scott creates in Waverley a genre that gives tangible form to European society's deepest anxieties about its past and present, anxieties that will shape the new disciplines of ethnology, archaeology, and anthropology. The transition from eighteenth-century antiquarianism and fraudulent mythography is humorously charted in The Antiquary.

Budge, Gavin. '"The Vampyre": Romantic Metaphysics and the Aristocratic Other', in The Gothic Other: Racial and Social Constructions in the Literary Imagination, ed. Ruth Bienstock Anolik and Douglas L. Howard (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2004), pp. 212-35.

Includes (pp. 225-29) a discussion of Waverley.

Burke, Mary M. 'Dwellers in Archaic Cultural Time: "Gypsies", "Tinkers" and "Gaels" in the Writings of Sir Walter Scott’, in To the Other Shore: Crosscurrents in Irish and Scottish Studies, ed. Neal Alexander, Shane Murphy and Anne Oakman (Belfast: Queen’s University Press, 2004), pp. 16-28.

Burstein, Miriam Elizabeth. ‘"Beautiful and Poetic Creations": Scott and the Fictions of Women's History’, in Narrating Women's History in Britain, 1770-1902 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004), pp.78-97.

Argues that The Bride of Lammermoor, far from delineating 'the romance' and 'the historical' according to convenient binarisms of masculine and feminism, sharply challenges neat associations between gender and narrative modes.

Carroll, David. 'Sir Walter Scott and his Own Romantic Town', in Edinburgh: Literary Lives & Landscapes (Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 2004)

Pagination unknown; pp. 24-37 in 2011 History Press reprint.

Carruthers, Annette. 'William Morris and Scotland', Journal of the Decorative Arts Society 1850 to the Present, 28 (2004), 8-27.

Discusses Morris's lifelong love of Scott and, in particular, The Antiquary. Suggests that Morris identified strongly with Scott's Jonathan Oldbuck with whom he shared a) a passion for collecting tapestries, fine books, manusripts, incunabula and engravings, b) an interest in history, archaeology, monastic architecture, and armaments, and c) a pride in craftsmanship. Morris also valued the handed-down tradition of knowledge embodied in Edie Ochiltree and admired Scott's vision of the feudal system as an unbroken chain of service.

Chandler, David. ‘Scott's Saint Ronan's Well and Wordsworth's "Hart-Leap Well"', Notes and Queries, 51.2 (2004), 152-57.

Argues that Wordsworth's poem is an important shaping influence on Scott's novel, particularly in the use of the 'Buckstane' to connect two sets of actions, through its associations of suffering and misplaced values and its link with the story's originating crime.

Cox, Jeffrey N. 'Staging Baillie', in Joanna Baillie, Romantic Dramatist: Critical Essays, ed. Thomas C. Crochunis (London: Routledge, 2004), pp. 69-86.

Includes (pp. 161-63) a discussion of Scott's involvement in the 1810 production of Baillie's The Family Legend.

Craciun, Adriana. 'Romantic Spinstrelsy: Anne Bannerman and the Sexual Politics of the Ballad', in Scotland and the Borders of Romanticism, ed. Leith Davis, Ian Duncan, and Janet Sorensen (Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 2004), pp. 204-24.

Includes (pp. 206-07) a discussion of Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border which stresses the co-editorial role of John Leyden and notes the conflict between Scott's vision of balladry as bardic, courtly, and masculine and Leyden's understanding of it as collective, democractic, and feminine.

Deresiewicz, William. 'Persuasion: Widowhood and Waterloo', in Jane Austen and the Romantic Poets (New York; Chichester: Columbia University Press, c2004), pp. 127-58.

Argues (pp. 146-51, 153-55) that in Persuasion (1818) Austen is inspired by Scott's verse romances (particulary Marmion and The Lord of the Isles) to synchronize the personal drama of loss and love with the national drama of war and peace. Notes too that the novel takes place in the shadow of Waterloo and draws on Austen's reading of The Field of Waterloo and Paul's Letters to His Kinsfolk.

Docherty, Thomas. ‘The Existence of Scotland’, in Scotland in Theory: Reflections on Culture and Literature, ed. Eleanor Bell and Gavin Miller (Amsterdam; New York: Rodopi, 2004), pp. 231-47.

Argues that we must use the Bildungsroman of Waverley to develop the notion of Scotland as a 'theoretical possibility' rather than a historically passive object.

Dryden, Edgar A. '"Lost in ‘The Custom-House": Hawthorne the Literary Man', Nathaniel Hawthorne Review, 30 (2004), 166-86.

Argues that Hawthorne derives his 'ambivalent attitude toward fiction' and 'uneasy sense of himself as a literary man' from Scott. Charts parallels between the two writers' prefaces and correspondence which demonstrate that each recognizes a clear distinction between politics and his role as an imaginative writer.

Dyer, Gary. 'Reading as a Criminal in Early Nineteenth-Century Fiction', Wordsworth Circle, 35 (2004), 141-46.

Includes (pp. 143-44) a discussion of Scott's (unglossed) use of criminal slang or 'cant' in Guy Mannering and 'The Surgeon's Daughter'. Suggests that disguised communication is central to canonical Romanticism, whose major texts address their readers as if at least some of them were 'knowing' members of a secret fraternity.

Ford, Susan Allen. 'Learning Romance from Scott and Byron: Jane Austen's Natural Sequel', Persuasions, 26 (2004), 72-88.

Includes a discussion of the intertextual role of Scott's verse romances in Jane Austen's Persuasion.

Frazier, Melissa. 'Personae and Personality in O. I. Senkovskij', Russian Literature, 56 (2004), 343-62.

Includes (pp. 350-54) a discussion of the influence of Scott's Jedediah Cleishbotham persona (particularly as developped in the introduction to The Heart of Mid-Lothian) on the journalistic personae of the Polish-Russian writer Józef Sekowski (also known as Osip Ivanovic Senkovskij).

Fritzsche, Peter. 'Household Fairies', in Stranded in the Present: Modern Time and the Melancholy of History (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004), pp. 160-200.

Includes a discussion of Scott, pp. 174-77.

Furbank, P. N. 'On the Historical Novel', Raritan, 23.3 (2004), 94-114.

Argues that the historical novel escapes Henry James's critique of the genre when it uses the past to cast light on the present, for it is from our sense of the past that our sense of the present is constructed. Waverley is particularly successful in preserving a place for the modern consciousness and making plain the thread connecting the writer (and reader) to the bygone scene. Sees Ivanhoe, conversely, as an 'archaizing' novel which emphasizes the pastness of the past.

Gamer, Michael. 'Authors in Effect: Lewis, Scott and the Gothic Drama', in Gothic: Critical Concepts in Literary and Cultural Studies, ed. Fred Botting and Dale Townshend (London: Routledge, 2004), II, 214-42.

Garbin, Lidia. '"Not fit to tie his brogues": Shakespeare and Scott', in Shakespeare and Scotland, ed. Willy Maley and Andrew Murphy (Manchester; New York: Manchester University Press, 2004), pp. 141-56.

Argues that throughout Scott's works Shakespeare functions as an authority and a resource for both characters and narrator. Focuses primarily on Kenilworth, where Shakespeare is presented as a a transgressor and trespasser, a 'halting fellow', like Scott himself, someone whose identity and status is dependent on the whim of others. Goes on to discuss attempts by Cavalier and Roundhead alike to appropriate Shakespeare for political ends in Woodstock.

Gottlieb, Evan. ‘”To Be at Once Another and the Same”: Walter Scott and the End(s) of Sympathetic Britishness’, Studies in Romanticism, 43 (2004), 187-207.

Argues that The Heart of Midlothian deploys a vocabulary of sympathy, adapted from the Scottish Enlightenment, in order to encourage readers to think of themselves as British first, English or Scottish second. A reworked and expanded version appears in Evan Gottlieb's Feeling British: Sympathy and National Identity in Scottish and English Writing, 1707-1832 (2007).

Gribben, Crawford. ‘James Hogg, Scottish Calvinism and Literary Theory’, Scottish Studies Review, 5.2 (2004), 9-26.

Includes a comparison of the treatment of Calvinism and the Covenanting tradition in Old Mortality and Hogg's The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner.

Guthke, Karl S. 'Gruppenbild ohne M.G. Lewis: Neues zu Walter Scotts Übersetzungen von Goethes Balladen', Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen, 241 (2004), 1-17.

Through an examination of Scott's correspondence with M. G. Lewis, assesses Lewis's role in refining Scott's translation of Goethe's ballad 'Der untreue Knabe' ('Frederick and Alice') for publication in Tales of Wonder (1801) (see Literary Beginnings). Also prints a hitherto unpublished translation by Scott of Goethe's poem 'Der Fischer' ('The Mermaid').

Halmi, Nicholas. ‘Lucy, Lucia, and Locke’, Romanticism on the Net, 34/35 (2004) <> [accessed 13 May 2008]

Argues that Donizetti's Lucia di Lammermoor rewrites The Bride of Lammermoor from a Lockean perspective.

Harthorn, Stephen P. 'Truth and Consequences: James Fenimore Cooper on Scott, Columbus, Bumppo, and Professional Authorship', James Fenimore Cooper Society Miscellaneous Papers, 20 (2004), 1-10.

Discusses a review of J. G. Lockhart’s Memoirs of the Life of Sir Walter Scott, Bart., where Cooper argued that Scott was guilty of grossly dishonest and self-serving conduct as a professional author and was poisoned by a calculating instinct geared toward fame and popularity. Through his critique of Scott, Cooper sought to define the ethical code that would distinguish the true professional literary artist in America.

Henriques, Ana Lucia de Souza. 'Walter Scott: um caçador de canções medievais', Feminismos, identidades, comparativismos, 2 (2004), 9-23.

Brazilian article on Scott's ballad-hunting, presumably discussing Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border.

Hewitt, David. 'Walter Scott 1771-1832', in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, ed. Brian Harrison, 60 vols (Oxford University Press, 2004), XLIX, pp. 490-510.

Provides a detailed overview of Scott's life, charts the fluctuations of his literary reputation, and assesses his character.

Hill, Richard. ‘Understanding Walter Scott in the 21st Century’, University of Edinburgh Journal, 51 (2004), 227-30.

On the Edinburgh Edition of the Waverley Novels and the shortcomings of the Magnum Opus text with particular reference to The Pirate.

Hites, Sándor. ‘Sir Walter Scott és az Ivanhoe magyar fordítói’, in A múltnak kútja: tanulmányok a történelmi elbeszélések körébol (Budapest: JAK: Ulpius-ház, 2004), pp. 143-69.

On Hungarian translations of Ivanhoe.

Hook, Andrew. 'The French Taste for Scottish Literary Romanticism', in Scotland and France in the Enlightenment, ed. Deirdre Dawson and Pierre Morère (Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 2004), pp. 90-107.

Argues that Scotland and France enjoyed their closest cultural links in the decade 1820-1830. Charts how Scott's novels inspired operas, art, drama, and literary fiction as well as fashion, furniture, and masked balls. Giving identity to an existing French inclination that was waiting to be exploited, the Waverley Novels played a crucial role in the development of French Romanticism.

Janko, Anton. 'Sir Walter Scott pri slovencih', in Prevajanje besedil iz obdobja romantike = Translation of Texts from the Romantic Period, ed. Martina Ozbot (Ljubljana: Društvo slovenskih književnih prevajalcev, 2004), pp. 83-94.

A survey of Slovenian translations of Scott.

Jones, Miriam. '”The Usual Sad Catastrophe”: From the Street to the Parlor in Adam Bede’, Victorian Literature and Culture, 32 (2004), 305-26.

Discusses hypertextual references to The Heart of Midlothian in the portrayal of the 'infanticidal woman'.

Jones, W. Gareth. '"'Tis Sixty Years Since": Sir Walter Scott's Eighteenth Century and Tolstoy's Engagement with History', in Russian Society and Culture and the Long Eighteenth Century: Essays in Honour of Anthony G. Cross, ed. Roger Bartlett and Lindsey Hughes (Münster: Litverlag; New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2004), pp. 185-94.

Notes the lack of research into Scott's influence on Tolstoy, an influence denied by Tolstoy himself and, subsequently, György Lukács. Observes, however, that both Waverley and War and Peace deal with events sixty years in the past, and detects similarties in the presentation of battle and choice of a mediocre protagonist. Tolstoy, however, places greater emphasis on the people as the mainspring of political events and shows greater scorn for the 'great men' who believe they direct history.

Kemeny, Tomaso. ‘”The wren, the wren was caught in the furze”: annotazioni in margine a poetiche note’, Confronto letterario, 41 (2004), 277-85.

Kincade, Kit. ‘A Whillaluh for Ireland: Castle Rackrent and Edgeworth's Influence on Sir Walter Scott’, in An Uncomfortable Authority: Maria Edgeworth and her Contexts, ed. Heidi Kaufman and Chris Fauske (Newark: Delaware UP, 2004), pp. 250-69.

Discusses in particular the influence of Castle Rackrent on The Heart of Midlothian.

Knox-Shaw, Peter. 'Persuasion: Light on an Old Genre', in Jane Austen and the Enlightenment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp. 220-42.

Includes (especially pp. 222-24, 230-32) a discussion of Jane Austen's engagement with Scott's The Field of Waterloo, The Lady of the Lake, and, in particular, Marmion in her last novel Persuasion.

Lee, Yoon Sun. ‘Sir Walter Scott on the Field of Waterloo’, in Nationalism and Irony: Burke, Scott, Carlyle (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), pp. 74-104.

Examines why and how Scott used antiquarianism to articulate his complex, ironic nationalism. Despite its avowed patriotic intentions, antiquarian foraging for scraps, fragments, and illegible objects could embarrass or even undermine belief in national character as an unbroken inheritance. In Paul’s Letters to His Kinsfolk and The Antiquary, Scott showed how antiquarianism could be critical, skeptical, and commercially-minded at the same time that it upheld cherished national fictions.

McGann, Jerome. 'Marking Texts of Many Dimensions', in A Companion to Digital Humanities, ed. Susan Schriebman, Ray Siemens, and John Unsworth (Malden, MA; Oxford : Blackwell, c2004), pp. 198-217

Includes (pp. 206-07) a description of the IVANHOE Game, developed by Prof. McGann and Johanna Drucker at the University of Virginia, 'an online playspace that facilitates collaborative interpretation' and permits student-players to perform or to modify Scott's novel-making decisions.

McGann, Jerome. 'Walter Scott's Romantic Postmodernity', in Scotland and the Borders of Romanticism, ed. Leith Davis, Ian Duncan, and Janet Sorensen (Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 2004), pp. 113-29.

Analyses Scott's framing devices as a means of urging readers to attend to the artifice of the work before them. A revised version appeared in Jerome McGann's The Scholar’s Art: Literary Studies in a Managed World ( 2006).

McGann, Jerome, and Joanna Drucker. 'IVANHOE: Interpretation in a New Key with Special Reference to Byron's "Fare Thee Well"', Romantic Pedagogy Commons, 1 (2004) <> [accessed 29 August 2006]

A Flash presentation demonstrating how the IVANHOE Game works.

McGann, Jerome (in collaboration with Johanna Drucker and Bethany Nowviskie). 'IVANHOE: Education in a New Key', Romantic Pedagogy Commons, 1 (2004) <> [accessed 29 August 2006]

Outlines the pedagogical potential of the IVANHOE Game.

McIntosh-Varjabédian, Fiona. 'Etre dans l'histoire ou dans ses marges: Philippe de Commynes et Walter Scott', Bien dire et bien aprandre, 22 (2004), 247-58.

On Scott's debt to the fifteenth-century French chronicler Philippe de Commynes.

McIntosh-Varjabédian, Fiona. 'Pourquoi annoter un roman?: Le Magnum Opus de Walter Scott et la création du romancier savant', in Les Marges théoriques internes: actes du colloque des 13, 14 et 15 septembre 2001, Université Nancy 2, UFR de Lettres, ed. Laurence Kohn-Pireaux and Dominique Denès (Nancy: Presses Universitaires de Nancy, 2004), pp. 23-35.

On the notes that Scott prepared for the 'Magnum Opus' edition of the Waverley Novels.

Maciulewicz, Joanna. ‘From Epic to the Historical Novel: The Reflection of the Transition from the Epic to the Novelistic Tradition in Sir Walter Scott's Waverley’, in Aspects of Suffering: Classical Themes in Literature in English, ed. Liliana Sikorska (New York; Frankfurt: Lang, 2004), pp. 87-105.

Analyses Waverley to show how transformations in manners and lifestyle dictate alterations in the genres employed to describe them. Thus, the historical novel, which by definition portrays the world in transition between feudalism and modernity will necessarily combine epic and novelistic convention.

Maciulewicz, Joanna. ‘Sir Walter Scott's Licentia Historica: The Historical Novel as a Displaced Romance’, Studia Anglica Posnaniensia, 40 (2004), 323-32.

Demonstrates how Scott depicts the transformation of the social order in The Fair Maid of Perth, from pre-modernity and feudalism to the modern, capitalist world, which entails the transformation of romance conventions into novelistic ones.

McLane, Maureen N. ‘Tuning the Multi-Media Nation, or, Minstrelsy of the Afro-Scottish Border ca 1800’, European Romantic Review, 15 (2004), 289-305.

Compares Scott's mediation of ballad sources in Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border to that of Joseph Ritson and John Pinkerton.

McMillan, Dorothy. 'Unromantic Caledon: Representing Scotland in The Family Legend, Metrical Legends, and Witchcraft', in Joanna Baillie, Romantic Dramatist: Critical Essays, ed. Thomas C. Crochunis (London: Routledge, 2004), pp. 69-86.

Includes a discussion of Scott's involvement in the 1810 production of Baillie's The Family Legend.

Malzahn, Manfred. 'Walter Scott: The Haunting and the Haunted', Cencrastus, 77 (2004), 15-18.

On Rob Roy.

Manning, Susan. '"Peine forte et dure": Scott and France', in Scotland and France in the Enlightenment, ed. Deirdre Dawson and Pierre Morère (Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 2004), pp. 108-127.

Argues that in his late work, Scott created a France in which rage, anarchy, and violence flourished and thus found new creative energies at a low point in his personal fortunes. Draws a parallel between Scott's personal struggles and the historical struggles depicted in Quentin Durward and Anne of Geierstein. Most strikingly, when writing the Life of Napoleon Bonaparte, Scott increasingly linked his fate with the Emperor's, as he described a triumphant career ending in disgrace, confinement, and physical pain.

Mason, Emma. '"Some kind friends": Scott's Harold the Dauntless (HM 1937) and Frederick Locker-Lampson', Huntington Library Quarterly, 67 (2004), 623-31.

Victorian collector Frederick Locker-Lampson (1821-95), founder of the Rowfant Library, owned an incomplete manuscript of Scott's Harold the Dauntless which is now in Huntington Library. This article describes how he completed and enhanced the manuscript by inviting well-known poets and literary figures -- including Arnold, Browning, and Tennyson -- to transcribe the missing lines.

Mergenthal, Silvia. 'Translating the Historical Novel: The Scott Formula in 19th-Century German Literature', in Anglistentag 2003 in München: Proceedings (Trier: WVT, 2004), pp. 225-34.

Moore, P. G. 'Dr Baird and his Feminine Eponyms: Biographical Considerations and Ostracod Nomenclature', Archives of Natural History, 32 (2004), 92-105.

Suggests that Scottish zoologist William Baird (1803-72) drew on his love of Scott in naming four ostracod species, viz. Pilomedes brenda, Macrocypis minna, Cylindroleberis mariae, and Cypris joanna. The first two, found off the coast of Shetland, may benamed after the Shetlandic sisters Brenda and Minna in Scott's The Pirate. The latter may honour Scott's writer-friends Maria Edgeworth and Joanna Baillie whose espousal of social reform and proto-feminism would have resonated with Baird.

Mortensen, Peter. ‘"The Descent of Odin": Romantic Writers among the Norsemen', in British Romanticism and Continental Influences: Writing in an Age of Europhobia (Houndmills: Palgrave, 2004), pp. 173-207.

Includes (pp. 193-203) a discussion of Harold the Dauntless, arguing that Scott revives and exploits timeworn clichés about 'northern freedom' and 'northern independence' only to subvert them and reveal them as empty signifiers. An earlier version of this chapter appeared in Romanticism, 6 (2000).

Mortensen, Peter. ‘"The Flower of English Chivalry": Scott, the German Hero, and the Making of a War-Poem’, in Prevajanje besedil iz obdobja romantike = Translation of Texts from the Romantic Period, ed. Martina Ozbot (Ljubljana: Društvo slovenskih književnih prevajalcev, 2004), pp. 95-110.

While Scott publicly played down the importance of his early translations from German, this article argues that in reality he exploited German conventions throughout his ‘mature’ years, adapting them to the changed socio- political climate of Britain during the Napoleonic Wars. Focusing, in particular on Marmion, Mortensen shows that Scott does not break with but rather refines his use of Sturm und Drang plots, settings and character types.

Mortensen, Peter. ‘"Partizans of the German Theatre": The Poetics and Politics of Romantic Drama Translation', in British Romanticism and Continental Influences: Writing in an Age of Europhobia (Houndmills: Palgrave, 2004), pp. 134-72.

Includes (pp. 140-50) a discussion of Scott's translation of Goethe's Götz von Berlichingen, which argues that Scott employs an archaicizing, foreignizing language in order to resist the parallels that Goethe hints at with contemporary politics.

Müllenbrock, Heinz-Joachim. 'Scott und die Historiographie', Literaturwissenschaftliches Jahrbuch im Auftrage der Görres-Gesellschaft, 45 (2004), 99-108.

German-language article on Scott and historiography.

Müllenbrock, Heinz Joachim, and Frauke Reitemeier. 'Benedikte Naubert and Sir Walter Scott: Further Suggestions towards a Genealogy of the Historical Novel', in The Corvey Library and Anglo-German Cultural Exchanges, 1770-1837: Essays to Honour Rainer Schöwerling, ed. Werner Huber (Munich: Fink, 2004), pp. 131-45.

In an effort to ascertain Scott's debt to the German historical novel, compares Waverley to Naubert's Hermann von Unna (1794) and to a representative English novel, the anonymous Edward De Courcy (1794). Concludes that Naubert takes history more seriously than her English contemporaries, making some effort to show how private and historical circumstances intertwine and to reflect on the relationship between past and present and between history and fiction.

Newman, Andrew. ‘Sublime Translation in the Novels of James Fenimore Cooper and Walter Scott’, Nineteenth-Century Literature, 59 (2004), 1-26.

Argues that Cooper's motif of 'sublime translation', whereby scenes of communication between Anglo-Americans and native Americans are set in sublime locations and, typically, interrupted by animals, is borrowed from Waverley. This article was subsequently reprinted in Nineteenth-Century Literature Criticism, 203 (2008).

O'Donoghue, Heather. ‘The Influence of Old Norse-Icelandic Literature’, in Old Norse-Icelandic Literature (Malden, MA; Oxford: Blackwell, 2004), pp.149-201.

Includes (pp. 157-61) a discussion of the influence of Old Norse and Icelandic literature on The Pirate and Rokeby.

Page, Judith. W. 'Jews and the Romantic Culture of Sympathy', in Imperfect Sympathies: Jews and Judaism in British Romantic Literature and Culture (Basingstoke; New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), pp. 1-20.

Includes (pp. 11-15) a discussion of Ivanhoe and of Scott's attitude towards Jews.

Perkins, Pam. '"We Who Have Been Bred upon Sir Walter": Margaret Oliphant, Sir Walter Scott, and Women's Literary History', English Studies in Canada, 30.2 (2004), 90-104.

Argues that Scott was more important for Oliphant than any of his female contemporaries in establishing a literature that transcended the limitations of conventionally masculine or feminine subject matter.

Phillips, Helen. 'Scott and Chaucer: Ekphrasis, Politics, and the Past in The Antiquary', Poetica, 61 (2004), 25-42.

Riach, Alan. ‘The Whistler's Story: Tragedy and the Enlightenment Imagination in The Heart of Midlothian’, Studies in Scottish Literature, 33/34 (2004), 308-19.

Places The Heart of Midlothian at the midway point of a shift in Scott's work, from an optimistic, rational, classical temper, in which the concerns of judgment, balance, and order are predominant, to a temper more given to darkness, dream and symbol. An expanded version subsequently appeared in Riach's Representing Scotland in Literature, Popular Culture and Iconography: The Masks of the Modern Nation (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, c2005).

Rigney, Ann. ‘Portable Monuments: Literature, Cultural Memory and the Case of Jeanie Deans’, Poetics Today, 25 (2004), 361-96.

Argues, through a study of the genesis, composition, and long-term reception of The Heart of Midlothian, that literary texts play a variety of roles in the formation of cultural memory and that these roles are linked to their status as public discourse, to their fictional and poetical qualities, and to their longevity.

Robertson, Fiona. 'Romance and the Romantic Novel: Sir Walter Scott', in A Companion to Romance: From Classical to Contemporary, ed. Corinne Saunders (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004), pp. 287-304.

Surveys the especially influential place of Scott both as a medieval scholar and as a novelist, examining the presence of romance motifs, patterning, and symbolism in the Waverley Novels, and focusing, in particular, on Scott's use of hunting scenes and the narrative form of entrelacement.

Romanos, Christos S. 'Semiotics of the Historical Novel', in Human Boundaries: Oral Song, Text, Hypertext (Minneapolis, MN: Nostos, 2004)

Pagination unknown. An analysis of The Antiquary.

Rowland, Ann Wierda. '"The false nourice sang": Childhood, Child Murder, and the Formalism of the Scottish Ballad Revival', in Scotland and the Borders of Romanticism, ed. Leith Davis, Ian Duncan, and Janet Sorensen (Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 2004), pp. 225-44.

Examines how Scottish ballad collections, principally Scott's Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, deal with infanticide ballads and other tales of family violence which might challenge visions of national continuity, strength, or historical perseverance. Argues that they produce a reading practice that disregards content and privileges form as a vehicle of national cultural transmission.

Samuels, Maurice. 'Scott Comes to France', in The Spectacular Past: Popular History and the Novel in Nineteenth-century France (Ithaca, N.Y. ; London: Cornell University Press, 2004), pp. 151-94.

Argues that Scott's originality lies in adapting the form of the novel to the spectacular conventions of nineteenth-century historiography. Charts the influence of Scott and his French imitators on all the spectacular forms of historical representation in nineteenth-century France, including Romantic historiography and the Romantic historical drama.

Scraba, Jeffrey. 'Negotiating History: Tourists and Guides in Washington Irving’s Abbotsford', in Conference Proceedings: Tourism and Literature: Travel, Imagination and Myth, Harrogate, UK, 22-26 July 2004 (Leeds Metropolitan University CTCC, 2004) [on CD-ROM]

Show how Washington Irving’s Abbotsford both constructs Scott’s home as a site of literary pilgrimage and depicts a Scotland being rapidly transformed by reactions to Scott’s works. Not only did Scott’s texts themselves reconstruct places through a nostalgic historicism, but tourists also reified these reconstructions by reading the landscape through the lens of historical romance. However, as Irving shows, the local population also adopted, modified, and retailed these texts for their own purposes.

Scrivener, Michael. 'Trials in Romantic-Era Writing: Modernity, Guilt, and the Scene of Justice', Wordsworth Circle, 35 (2004), 128-33.

Includes a discussion of The Heart of Mid-Lothian and Ivanhoe.

Shaw, Harry E. 'Realities of the Prison: Dickens, Scott, and the Secularization of Their Eighteenth-Century Inheritance', in In the Grip of the Law: Trials, Prisons and the Space Between, ed. Monika Fludernik and Greta Olson (Frankfurt am Main: Lang, 2004), pp. 169-84.

Simpson, Erik. ‘Minstrelsy Goes to Market: Prize Poems, Minstrel Contests, and Romantic Poetry', ELH, 71 (2004), 691-718.

Discusses Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border and The Lay of the Last Minstrel. A reworked and expanded version appears in Erik Simpson's Literary Minstrelsy, 1770-1830: Minstrels and Improvisers in British, Irish, and American Literature (2008).

Skelton-Foord, Christopher. 'Walter Scott and the Engendering of the Popular Novel: Circulating-Library Holdings of British Fiction, 1805-1819', in The Corvey Library and Anglo-German Cultural Exchanges, 1770-1837: Essays to Honour Rainer Schöwerling, ed. Werner Huber (Munich: Wilhelm Fink, 2004), pp. 101-16.

Examining the holdings of forty-six circulating libraries of the Romantic period, finds evidence that Scott did indeed signal the demise of female dominance of British fiction. Notes, however, that Scott always remained generous and honest in his praise of the huge contribution made by women writers to the development of the novel in his time.

Spina, Giorgio. ‘Walter Scott: la storia come romanzo’, in Personaggi in controluce (Genoa: Autori autogestiti associati liguri & PersonalEdit, 2004), pp. 78-87.

Essentially a biographical sketch, with a brief discussion of Scott's role in the creation of historical fiction and his influence on the subsequent development of the 19th-century novel.

Stevenson, David. ‘”The Gudeman of Ballangeich”: Rambles in the Afterlife of James V’, Folklore (UK), 115 (2004), 187-200.

Discusses The Lady of the Lake and Tales of a Grandfather.

Sullivan, Joseph M. ‘MGM's 1953 Knights of the Round Table in its Manuscript Context’, Arthuriana, 14 (2004), 53-68.

Discusses Knights of the Round Table (1953), Quo Vadis? (1951), Ivanhoe (1952), and The Adventures of Quentin Durward (1955).

Tulloch, Graham. 'Writing "by Advice": Ivanhoe and The Three Perils of Man', Studies in Hogg and his World, 15 (2004), 53-66.

Compares the two writers' modes of composition and revision by studying the manuscripts of Ivanhoe and Hogg's The Three Perils of Man.

Tytler, Graeme. '"Faith in the Hand of nature": Physiognomy in Sir Walter Scott's Fiction', Studies in Scottish Literature, 33/34 (2004), 223-46.

Examines how far references to physiognomy in Scott and his physical character descriptions reflect the influence of the 18th-century Swiss physiognomist Lavater.

Voskuil, Lynn M. 'Feeling Public: Sensation Theater, Commodity Culture, and the Victorian Public Sphere', in Acting Naturally: Victorian Theatricality and Authenticity (Charlottesville; London: University of Virginia Press, 2004), pp. 62-94.

Discusses, among other Victorian 'sensation dramas', Dion Boucicault's The Trial of Effie Deans, adapted from The Heart of Midlothian. An earlier version was published in Victorian Studies, 44 (2002).

Watt, James. 'Scott, the Scottish Enlightenment, and Romantic Orientalism', in Scotland and the Borders of Romanticism, ed. Leith Davis, Ian Duncan, and Janet Sorensen (Cambridge, England: Cambridge UP, 2004), pp. 94-112.

Examines The Talisman and 'The Surgeon's Daughter' within the context of competing efforts to explain differences between cultures and people, and, in particular, the works of the 'Scottish Orientalists', James Mill, William Robertson, and Mountstuart Elphinstone.

Whyte, Christopher. ‘Queer Readings, Gay Texts: From Redgauntlet to The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie', in Resisting Alterities: Wilson Harris and Other Avatars of Otherness, ed. Marco Fazzini (Amsterdam; New York: Rodopi, 2004), pp.159-75.

Argues that Scottish literary criticism typically ignores potential 'queer readings' of canonical texts, ignoring subjects such as cross-dressing in Redgauntlet and homo-eroticism in The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie. The suppression of such potential readings indicates the prohibitions and taboos involved in the formation of the Scottish canon. Also published in a different form as Whyte 2004b (below).

Whyte, Christopher. ‘Queer Readings, Gay Texts: From Redgauntlet to The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie', in Scotland in Theory: Reflections on Culture and Literature, ed. Eleanor Bell and Gavin Miller (Amsterdam; New York: Rodopi, 2004), pp.147-65.

Argues that Scottish literary criticism typically ignores potential 'queer readings' of canonical texts, ignoring subjects such as cross-dressing in Redgauntlet and homo-eroticism in The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie. The suppression of such potential readings indicates the prohibitions and taboos involved in the formation of the Scottish canon. Also published in a different form as Whyte 2004a (above).

Zeune, Joachim. 'Vom "echten Styl" deutscher Burgen: das Bild der Burg im 19. Jahrhundert', Burgen und Schlösser, 45 (2004), 8-17.

Includes a discussion of the impact of Scott's Ivanhoe on the romanticization of medieval castles and medieval life by painters, architects, writers, and musicians in Germany and elsewhere in nineteenth-century Europe.

Zhang, Jianfei. 'Feng jing yu min zu xing de jian gou: yi Sigete wei li' [Landscape and Formation of Nationality: A Case Study of Walter Scott], Foreign Literature Studies, 108 (2004), 135-41.

Drawing on Isaiah Berlin's ideas on cultural nationalism and romanticism, analyzes how Scott transforms the Romantic cult of nature into an expression of cultural nationality. Reads the Highland landscape in Scott's fiction as a set of visual clues to the mindset and feelings of the Highlanders, and analyzes how landscape becomes a force binding people to their homeland and community and driving them to revolt against oppressive outsiders.

Ziolkowski, Theodore. 'Wavering Heroes, from Scotland to Spain', in Hesitant Heroes: Private Inhibition, Cultural Crisis (Princeton, N.J.: Cornell University Press, 2004), pp. 119-39.

Discusses Waverley as a crucial step in a literary evolution where the epic hero passes from instant action through momentary hesitation to ever-lengthening temporizations culminating in total inaction. Unlike his immediate literary predecessor, Schiller's Wallenstein, who is destroyed by his inability to act, Waverley resolves his conflicts by marrying a Scotswoman and settling down on the border between the two countries and cultures.

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